Cryptocurrencies have been in the news recently because tax authorities believe they may be used to launder money and evade taxes. Even the Supreme Court appointed a Special Investigating Team on Black Money recommended that trading such currency be discouraged. While China was reported to have banned some its largest Bitcoin trading operators, countries such as the USA and Canada have laws set up to restrict stock trade in cryptocurrency.
What is Cryptocurrency?
Cryptocurrency, as the name suggests, uses encrypted codes to effect a transaction. These codes are recognized by other computers in an individual community. Instead of using paper money, an online ledger is updated by ordinary bookkeeping entries. The buyer’s account is debited and the seller’s account is credited with such currency.
How are Transactions Made on Cryptocurrency?
When a transaction is initiated by one user, her computer sends out a public cipher or public key that interacts with the private cipher of the person receiving the currency. If the receiver accepts the transaction, the initiating computer attaches a piece of code onto a block of several such encrypted codes that’s known to every user in the network. Special users called ‘Miners’ can attach the extra code to the publicly shared block by solving a cryptographic puzzle and earn more cryptocurrency in the process. Once a miner confirms a transaction, the record in the block can’t be changed or deleted.
BitCoin, for example, can be used on mobile devices as well to enact purchases. All you have to do is allow receiver scan a QR code from an app on your smartphone or bring them in person by utilizing Near Field Communication (NFC). Note that this is very similar to ordinary online wallets such as PayTM or MobiQuick.
Die-hard users swear by BitCoin because of its decentralized nature, international acceptance, anonymity, permanence of transactions and data security. Unlike paper currency, no Central Bank controls inflationary pressures on cryptocurrency. Transaction ledgers are stored in a Peer-to-Peer network. Which means every computer chips in its computing power and copies of databases are stored on every such node in the network. Banks, however, store transaction data in central repositories which are in the hands of private individuals hired by the firm.
How Can Cryptocurrency be utilized for Money Laundering?
The very fact that there is no control over cryptocurrency transactions by Central Banks or tax authorities means that transactions cannot always be tagged to a particular individual. This means that we don’t know whether the transactor has obtained the store of value legally or not. The transactee’s store is similarly suspect as nobody can tell what consideration was given for the currency received.
What does Indian Law Say about such Virtual Currencies?
Virtual Currencies or cryptocurrencies are commonly seen as pieces of software and therefore classify as a good beneath the Sale of Goods Act, 1930.
Being a good, indirect taxes on their sale or purchase in addition to GST on the services supplied by Miners would be applicable to them.
There is still a substantial amount of confusion about whether cryptocurrencies are valid as currency in India and the RBI, which includes authority over clearing and payment systems and pre-paid negotiable instruments, has certainly not authorized buying and selling via this medium of exchange.
Bitcoin Invest received by a resident in India would thus be governed by the FOREX Management Act, 1999 as an import of goods into this country.
India has allowed the trading of BitCoins in Special Exchanges with built-in safeguards for tax evasion or money-laundering activities and enforcement of Know Your Customer norms. These exchanges include Zebpay, Unocoin and Coinsecure.